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    George Orwell - 1984
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    • George Orwell - 1984
      Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell. The novel is set in Airstrip One, formerly Great Britain, a province of the superstate Oceania. Oceania is a world of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and public manipulation. Oceania's residents are dictated by a political regime euphemistically named English Socialism, shortened to "Ingsoc" in Newspeak. Newspeak is the government's invented language. The superstate is under the control of the privileged, elite Inner Party. The Inner Party, or Party, persecutes individualism and independent thinking known as "thoughtcrimes" and is enforced by the "Thought Police".

      The tyranny is ostensibly overseen by Big Brother, the Party leader who enjoys an intense cult of personality, but who may not even exist. The Party "seeks power entirely for its own sake. It is not interested in the good of others; it is interested solely in power." The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party, who works for the Ministry of Truth, or Minitrue in Newspeak. The Minitrue is responsible for propaganda and historical revisionism. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles, so that the historical record always supports the Party line. The workers are told they are correcting misquotations, when in actuality, they are writing false information as truth. The Minitrue also destroys all documents that have not been edited ; in this way, there is no proof that the government is lying. Smith is a diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother.

      The heroine of the novel, Julia, is based on Orwell's second wife, Sonia Orwell.

      As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content, plot, and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, doublethink, thoughtcrime, Newspeak, Room 101, telescreen, 2 + 2 = 5, and memory hole, have entered into common use since its publication in 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective Orwellian, which describes official deception, secret surveillance, brazenly misleading terminology, and manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state. In 2005, the novel was chosen by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005. It was awarded a place on both lists of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 13 on the editor's list, and 6 on the readers' list. In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.


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